Learn More about Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD+)

NAD is helpful in different aspects of metabolism. They are indispensable chemical compounds that regulate redox reactions in the inside of cells. NAD is consumed as a co-substrate in various non-redox responses that take the role of signaling and regulating pathways.

We will highlight the recent studies on genes, pathways, transcriptional regulators of NAD biosynthesis. We will also look at the application of comparative genomes when communicating acquired knowledge across species with sequenced genomes. Using this method, we will be able to identify new ways in which NAD biosynthesis predicts previous uncharacterized genes.

Jet Lag

NAD is a co-enzyme Nicotinamide dinucleotide (NADH) which is needed for the production of energy in cells. Some of the effects include simulation of dopamine, serotonin receptors, and noradrenaline through which mental alertness remains high increasing clarity and concentration.

Studies related to jet lag indicate that those who receive NADH show better cognitive performance and reduce sleepiness on the first day after the flight. A stable form for oral consumption is sold as a nutritional supplement and is not under the FDA regulation.

Biological Oxidations (Bioenergetics)

NAD alongside numerous oxidizable substrates is dehydrogenated in reactions taking place inside the mitochondria. This reaction takes place because of the catalytic reaction initiated by enzyme dehydrogenases, which uses nucleotide as a coenzyme.

In the reduced state, the co-enzymes attaches itself to a hydrogen ion and an electron. When a substrate moves the two hydrogens, one proton will remain behind. The reduced NAD denotes the first acceptor of the electron transport chain, which later becomes oxidized.

Health and Diseases

After many decades of studies, NAD+ is still a subject followed up by many researchers as new roles and functions of the cofactor emerges in regulating protein modification in cells. When modification takes place, NAD+ acts as a signaling substrate can regulate cellular metabolism and several cellular activities.


NAD+ is formed in the body from vitamin niacin. NAD is necessary for the oxidation-reduction reactions to 200 enzymes. These coenzymes are required for breaking down of glucose, ketones, and amino acids. NAD acts as a substrate for polymerase, which involves DNA transcription, repair, and replication.

The Synthesis of NAD in the liver with the help of vitamin B6 and riboflavin coenzyme, derivative flavion adenine dinucleotide (FAD). Different species vary in how they convert tryptophan to niacin.

Cell Metabolism

NAD plays a critical role in a range of cellular activities. Conversion of NAD from the oxidized form (NAD+) to the reduced form (NADH) provides the cell with a mechanism of accepting and donating electrons.

Reactions such as glycosis, oxidative phosphorylation depends on both NAD+ and NADH. Therefore, it is important if we had a means of visualizing NADH in living cells.

Physiological Role

NAD and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) both carry ions that are central to the metabolism of all cells. The only difference is how the ribose carbon number 2 phosphate is bound to adenine. The two are commonly referred to as pyridine nucleotides because they both have pyridine rings.

The two also contribute to the storage of energy in their oxidized form of either NAD+ or NADP+. They will release stored energy when a reverse reaction takes place. The reaction takes place in the presence of oxygen.